Loulan, ancient Chinese kingdom
Loulan or Kroran is rumored to have been one of the most ancient kingdoms in China. It was located on the north-eastern edge of the Lop Desert, which was an ancient important kingdom across the Silk Road. In 108 BCE, the Chinese Han Dynasty began to defeat the Loulan so that it finally became Han’s colony. The ancient ruins reserved in the current Mongol Autonomous region in China, Xinjiang city surrounded by a desert.
It was said that Loulan was the major road from Dunhuang to Korla, which is called “ northern route”. Loulan was first mentioned in a letter from the King of the Xiongnu region to the Ancient Chinese Emperor in 126 BCE. Furthermore, a 3,800 years old mummy was found in Loulan in 1980, which is a sign of Loulan’s ancient region.
After the Chinese envoy killed Loulan’s emperor in 77 BCE, the Loulan became a Chinese state, which changed name to Shanshan. Also, it was the central location from China to the West at the time of Han dynasty. In 260 CE, the Chinese General organized a military, however, this area gradually declined because of shortage of water. According to the historical record, Loulan was detected by Sven Hedin who excavated some houses and then discovered some Chinese manuscripts from the Later Han Dynasty.